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PASS National Centre


Development of SI as a global model

Supplemental Instruction was developed by Dr. Deanna Martin in 1973 at the University of Missouri, Kansas City (UMKC) to decrease the attrition rates of minority students in health care professions.  Since 1981, it has been continually recognised by the US Department for Education as one of the few post-secondary 'Exemplary Educational Programs'. As the program grew, UMKC supported the implementation into other institutions through the training and support of SI Supervisors. 

The benefits were also recognised more widely and in 2002, to support further dissemination, The International Center for Supplemental Instruction was formed by Dr Glen Jacobs.

Development of PASS in the UK

In the early 1990s, Jenni Wallace (working for Kingston University) adapted the SI model (including the change in name from SI to PASS) for use in British HEIs and in 1995, the Department of Chemistry was the first discipline to introduce PASS at The University of Manchester.    Currently, Manchester has 18 disciplines operating PASS, over 400 students acting as PASS Leaders, supporting in excess of 3000 lower, primarily 1st-year students.

PASS/SI/PAL/SLGs (Supported Learning Groups) and similar peer-facilitated academic discussion models, supported by trained SI Supervisors, operate in a number of Institutions in the UK and Eire, the majority of whom have been trained since the formation of the UK Centre for PASS in April 2009. 

For details of these schemes visit: